Project Topics





This chapter provides a broad overview of the employment
situation in graduate s which is a major concern of government and their social
partner throughout the region. The approach is rather general and highlights
major issues concerning employment problems and prospects in the region.
Because of data limitation, it does not attempt a comprehensive and
quantitative analysis of the employment situation. it brings with an
examination of the employment problems, including  background information on its origin and
trends, and then looks at the nature and underlying causes of contemporary
unemployment. Unemployment of a large portion of the labor force is a central
problem now in almost all the underdeveloped countries.

The phenomenon of chronic unemployment has become the major
concern of successive Nigerian government. The phenomenon of joblessness
creates much concern for the individual Nigerians. According to the 1966 – 67
manpower surveys in Nigeria, the proportion of the labour force in Nigeria not
working is 1 – 7 percent, which means that nearly two of every one hundred
member of the potential labor are unemployed.

Unemployment has thus reached such an alarming situation
today that is perhaps considered the most serious of the problem affecting
Nigeria and one that is steadily worsening as the gap between the rapid rising
member pressing for work and the new employment opportunities being created

In the underdeveloped countries such as Nigeria however
employment benefits are not available to the unemployed. the income level of
the great majority of families makes the provision of unemployment benefits
virtually impossible thus those unable to find jobs or these discharged from
their previous employments re left to fend for themselves. in under developed
countries majority of job seekers are therefore forced to create employment for
themselves particularly in the rural agricultural sectors where they force
disguised unemployment. in the context of this study both those who are
disguised unemployment. in the context of this study both those who are
disguisedly unemployed and those who are openly unemployed are lumped together
as the unemployed.

thus unemployment is define briefly as the negative aspect
of the economic process for an unemployed person is one who despite his
willingness and capacity to work is unable to do so for reasons inherent in the
organization of the commodity production.


Unemployment rates are
particularly high among graduate  and
especially among school leaves, giving rise increasingly to the problems of
“educated unemployment”. paradoxically, graduate  unemployment seems to be correlated with
levels of education attained in some cases. This is particularly true for
school leavers in, for example, Nigeria where the proportion of the unemployed
with secondary education increased from 24 to 51 percent between 1974 and 1985.
graduate  employment rates are probably 3
– 4 times higher than those of older workers, and in many countries in the
region open unemployment among

graduate  as a group
in the labour could be as 40 – 50 percent.

Moreover, graduate s and new entrants to the labour force
are as well placed as experienced workers to find employment in new
opportunities or to go into self employment. Theproblems of graduate  unemployment reflect the contraction of jobs
in the modern sector and declining rate of job creation in that sector.  It also suggests serious labour market
distortions related to the development and utilization of human resources in
the context

of changing
economic circumstances. further,  the
problem of graduate  unemployment
islinked to the fact of many African countries, as already noted, continue to
record relatively high rates of population growth, and the population structure
of some of those countries is overwhelmingly young will children of school
going age accounting for as much as half of the total population in some cases.


Unemployment has become a current and a current universal
problem in Nigeria. The impact presently has been felt by 80% of Nigerian’s
families. The efforts of our government to curb it are inadequate or
misdirected, so positive results are not yet in sight.

has brought hardship and object poverty to many families. The level of adult
dependency has increased, so the rate of saving in our economy is declining.
The problem has also led to increase in crime waves and rates. All these could
spell doom for the nation. It is deemed fit to embark on this study as a
contribution towards the eradication of the problems of unemployment and its
accompanying problems and hardship to the individual and in general.

Our primary
motive of carrying out this study were born of the desire to contribute in any
meaningful way the idea of how the glowing rate of unemployment in Nigeria can
be dealt with in order to reduce its social and other consequences especially
on our leaders of tomorrow to at least a minimum.

The roles of government to
assist people see the need of solving their numerous problems of which
unemployment is an integral part. Asgraduate s generally regarded, as catalyst
of national development are no longer assumed of job security and reliable
source of livelihood. We see this as warming signal, showing that dangeris
looming and if nothing is done to arrest the situation; it may spell out a
disaster which nobody in this country can afford

to                                                                              avoid.


The data and information that will be used in conducting
this research study will include both primary and secondary data which involves
personal observation, book, journals, company, documents, internet downloads
and a number of others white ups and presentations which are relevant to this

interview will also be carried out with entrepreneurs manage and finance
personal in addition to issue questionnaires.

The method of data analysis to a adopted and used in this
research study will used of statistical tools which are the simple percentage
alongside the chi – square tests.

This research study is not an exception to hypothesis
formulation and testing. The researcher intends to formulate and test the
research hypothesis as follows.

Research hypothesis 

The stress  to obtain
the necessary information requiredfro this research  work has been given rise to the following

Ho: The current Educational system is not serving  our societal need.

Hi;The current educational system is not serving our
societal need

Ho: What
means could the graduates unemployment be


There is no means graduates unemployment be eradicated Ho: The government
address itself to the problems of graduateunemployment galore?

Hi;The government has not address itself to the problems of
graduate unemployment galore


The case study or area where the problem has more impact in
view of the problems created by unemployment in Enugu state despite government
conscious efforts to create employment opportunities in the country, the
interest on this problem is to determine through facts and figure the level of,
and trend in unemployment in the country with the view to making lasting
policy, recommendations that will ameliorate the problem of unemployment.


The limitation of the study is in Enugu so anything that
explains unemployment outside this area will be irrelevant and useless.



The scope of
the study is in Enugu and it touches on the various

unemployment problems, forms of unemployment. Unemployment
has been one of the most persisted and unmanageable problems facing all
industrial countries of the world. If not handled adequately, it will not be
eliminated. The underlying causes of the serious employment problem in Nigeria
are linked both to supply – side factors, which determines the demand for
laborthrough the influence on main economic and labor market trends.

on the
supply side, apart from population growth, salient characteristics of the labor
force such as educational and skill level and mobility of labor can influence
the level and distribution of employment, on the demand side the capacity of
Nigeria economy to absorb labor into productive employment is influenced mainly
by the rate and pattern of economic growth as well as by the structure and
efficiency of production.

Unemployment may actually be
higher among women than men in Nigeria. although this is lately depicted in
recorded statistics many women in the country are officially outside the labor
force i.e. house wives and are not 
actively seeking work, but it is likely that because of the need to
argument household income many of these women would in fact take a job
opportunities if these were available. The participation and unemployment rates
of women in the labor force in Nigeria do not as such include the large reserve
of women whose unemployed” status is concealed and not

included in official statistics.